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What are Stem Cells

Stem Cells are one of hte most exciting discoveries in biology. They are cells which are not specialied and can become any types of specialised cell when required to do so. This remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body is happening during early ife and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internla repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, eah new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialised function, such as muscles cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.

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History of Stem Cell

1961: Till & McCulloch establish the foundation for stem cell science

1970: Bone marrow transplant for Leukaemia

1998: Researcher Extract the first stem cells from human embryos

1999: First successful human transplant of insulin-making cells from cadavars
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Types of Stem Cells 

Stem cells are the foundation for every organ and tissue in your body. There are many different types of stem cells that come from different places in the body or are formed at different times in our lives. These include;

Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs)   &     Adult Stem Cells (ASCs)

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adult-stem-cells

 Where are adult stem cells found ?

Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues, including brain, bone marrow, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, overian epithelium and testis. They are though to be resides in a specific area of each tissue (called a “Stem Cell Niche”). In many tissues, current evidence suggests that some types of stem cells are pericytes, cells that compose the outmost layer of small blood vessels. Typically, there is a very small number of stem cells in eahc tissue and, once removed from the body, their capacity to divide is limited, making generation of lagre quantities of stem cells difficult till they discover the adipose tissue (fat) a rich source of it. For that, adult stem cells become the simplest type to obtain, and have the greatest importance for medical purposes.

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What are the similarities and differences between embryonic and adult stem cells

Human embryonic and adult stem cells each have advantages and disadvantages regarding potential use for cell-based regenerative therapies. One major difference between adult and embryonic stem cells is their different abilities in the number and type of differentiated cell types they can become.

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What are the similarities and differences between embryonic and adult stem cells

Human embryonic and adult stem cells each have advantages and disadvantages regarding potential use for cell-based regenerative therapies. One major difference between adult and embryonic stem cells is their different abilities in the number and type of differentiated cell types they can become.

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 Why Are Adult Stem Cell Preferable to embryonic Stem Cells?

Adult Stem Cells, are naturaly exist in our bodies and they provide a natural repair mechanism for many tissues so, less likely to cause immune rejection since the patient’s own cells can be used. While embryonic stem cells belong in the microenvironment of the early embryo, where they tend to cause immune rejection, plus, high ethical controversy and uncertain legal status.

NO THERAPEIS:  In human have never been successfully carried out using embryonic stem cells

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Adult Stem Cell, What Do They Do ?

     Adult Stem Cells are considered as promising cell source for treatment of  a variety of different tissues and diseases ranging from type I diabetes (providing insulin-producing cells) to heart attach (repairing cardiac muscles) to neurological disease (regenerating lost neurons in the brain or spinal cord) besides  autoimmune, inflammatory and other degenerative diseases.

ASCs may remain dormant (non-dividing) for long periods of time until they are activated by a normal need for more cells to maintain tissues, or  when serious damage or disease attack. This approach is called “Regenerative Medicine“. A number of challenges must be overcome before the full therapeutic potential of adult stem cells can be realized, scientists in many laboratories are trying to grow large quantities of adult stem cells in cell culture and to manipulate them to generate specific cell types so they can be used to treat injury or disease.

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Types of Adult Stem Cell

  1. Hemopoietic Stem Cells (ESCs)It found in the bone marrow and umbilical cord blood and give rise to all the blood cell types plus all the tissues types of the developing body.
  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ASCs): It form only a limited number of tissue types and it have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood, wharton’s jelly from the umbilical cord and teeth.   

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Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which can be isolated from human and animal sources. Human MSCs (hMSCs) are the non-haematopoietic, multipotent stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineage such as osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes as well ectodermal (neurocytes) and endodermal lineages (hepatocytes).Since the first description of hMSCs derived from bone marrow, they have been isolated from almost all tissues including perivascular area .Still there is neither a single definition nor a quantitative assay to help in the identification of MSCs in mixed population of cells . 

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Medical Treatment with Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSCs)

     Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are one of the most famous stem cell type used in medicine. They have been shown to be effective for a wide range of diseases with a minimal risk profile. At the same time several hundred clinical studies are ongoing to investigate their regenerative abilities in greater detail. From a biological point-of-view, they are progenitor cells of connective tissues. 

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Adipose-derived Stem Cells

Using Stem Cells from Fat

Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue. To date, we have obtained stem cells from virtually all over the body, in the hopes of finding ways to avoid the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells. Newer research studies have now looked at the potential to use stem cells sourced from fat. 

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History of Adipose-derived Stem Cells

    Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) came under the spotlight in 2001, when Zuk et al.first demonstrated that autologous adipose tissue could be processed to obtain a fibroblast-like population of cells, also termed procedded lipoaspirate (PLA). These  PLA cells, or otherwise known as ASCs, could be futher induced to undergo differentiation into different cells based on lineage-specific induction factors. ASCs have since emrged as a key modality in tissue engineering and regenrative medicine. It may be defined as a milti-lineage stem cells population which is isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue, processed from lipoaspirate. 

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Capabilities of Adipose-derived Stem Cells

   ADSCs have the versatility to develop into a variety of mature tissues including but not limited to adipose, cardiac, bone, cartilage, muscle, nerve, and skin. they may subsequently be harnessed for therapeutic and reparative intent in diseased or damaged conditions of the body. Ther are multiple benefit in utilizing ASCs, which include the ease of availability and low donor site morbidity from liposuction, a minimally-invasive procedure. In addition,the ASC population yields a comparatively greater proliferation capacity as compared to bone marrow derived stem cells, while simultaneously providing a more convenient retrieval platform. the aim of this 

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Adipose-derived Stem Cell (ASCs) Aesthetic and Cosmetic Surgery Application

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 Where can I get more information?

For a more detailed discussion of stem cells, see the NIH’s Stem Cell Reports. Check the Frequently Asked Questions page for quick answers to specific queries. The navigation table at left can connect you to the information you need.

The following websites, which are not part of the NIH Stem Cell Information site, also contain information about stem cells. The NIH is not responsible for the content of these sites.

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Stem Cells in Plastic  & Aesthetic Surgery

   As part of the practicing feild of the plastic surgeons is performing procedures in the fields of skin and adipose tissue grafting, the reconstruction of compound tissue loss and congenital malformations, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and burns, as well as cosmetic surgery. The most commonly utilized SCs for these purposes are adult stem cells (AS), which are present in small amounts in every tissue; among these are two types of cells: bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs).

Plastic surgeons historically have used tissues of human being to restore various defect sites and utilized a single cell lines for the tissue regeneration. The cell sources (autologous or allogeneic), cell types (embryonic stem cell or adult stem cell), and source of tissues (bone marrow, muscle, adipose, cartilage, or blood) are very important for stem cell-based tissue coverage. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent precursors obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and reported to be used for preventing muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury. Multipotent adult stem cells are easily accessed for plastic surgeons during many routine procedures. This article briefly review the current state of overall stem cell research and clinical applications in the plastic surgical field.

 

INTRODUCTION

The major advantage of stem cell therapy is avoiding potentially harmful surgical procedures and resulting donor-site morbidity. In particular, it can reduce the surgical risk for elderly patients. The skin grafting or flap surgery can be a great loading due to poor general status or for patients. Indications are traumatic skin defect, severe burn, scar, skin ulcer, sore, diabetic foot, etc (1). Stem cell therapy can provide effective treatment modality for the treatment of bony and soft tissue defects like traumatic skin defect and severe burn, non-healing wounds complicated by ischemia like diabetic foor and sore. It also becomes very attractive tool for skin rejuvenation, scar improvement and augmentation of breast. The unwearying rearch work using various stem cells is still ongoing by many plastic surgeons.

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 Where can I get more information?

For a more detailed discussion of stem cells, see the NIH’s Stem Cell Reports. Check the Frequently Asked Questions page for quick answers to specific queries. The navigation table at left can connect you to the information you need.

The following websites, which are not part of the NIH Stem Cell Information site, also contain information about stem cells. The NIH is not responsible for the content of these sites.

Read more

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